Project Conception and Goals
Buildings consume about half the energy used in the US; globally, buildings account for 39% of greenhouse gas emissions. Getting all buildings to net zero emissions is a critical task for climate change mitigation, but new building construction creates significant new emissions—typically two to four times more than renovations—and house by house retrofits are too slow. The Oakland EcoBlock project aims to demonstrate technical, social, legal, and financial methods for radically reducing the environmental footprint of buildings through cost-effective retrofits at the block scale. The project is led by UC Berkeley and primarily funded by the California Energy Commission to support California legal mandates:
- SB 100: 50% renewable energy by 2026, 100% renewable energy by 2045
- SB 606: Water efficiency measures
- AB 1668: Drought preparedness
- SB 1339: Boost/streamlining microgrids
- 80.7% of the U.S. population lives in urban areas
- 40% of U.S. GHG emissions emanate from buildings
- Residential share of GHG emissions ≈ 53% of all total buildings
The EcoBlock concept recognizes the block as a common unit of organization in urban and suburban America – in fact, most cities in the world. Blocks come in different sizes and shapes, but the basic block structure appears in all places with moderate to high population density. The EcoBlock aims to harness that structure to make clean technology more affordable.
While the EcoBlock microgrid will be connected to PG&E and able to import power, the goal is to have the perform at Zero Net Energy, using the grid only as a backup. Ideally, solar PV will supply residential electricity uses (those connected to the microgrid) and transportation.
2. Island Mode
The solar panels and storage components of the microgrid should be large enough to have a high probability of serving all microgrid demand for several days in case of a PG&E outage, and provide uninterrupted supply for high-priority, critical loads.
3. Ancillary Services
In the future, a microgrid like the EcoBlock may also be able to provide useful services to the electric utility in exchange for some payment. That approach would take dual advantage of the energy storage resource, which is primarily there to serve the microgrid, but which could also help the utility address technical issues (such as voltage problems caused by other, uncontrolled solar generation and electric vehicle chargers nearby). Creating opportunities and tariffs for these kinds of services from clean, distributed resources is a subject of study in the area of energy policy, and it’s another way to make solar power more affordable.
The City of Oakland is partnering with the EcoBlock team to address permitting and regulatory considerations.